Links & Resource

Article Abstracts

1.  J Neurotrauma.2014 Feb 20. [Epub ahead of print]

Environmental enrichment as a viable neurorehabilitation strategy for experimental traumatic brain injury.

Bondi CO1Klitsch KLeary JBKline AE.

Author information


Environmental enrichment (EE) emerged as a robust independent variable capable of influencing behavioral outcome in experimental studies following the fortuitous observation by renowned neuropsychologist Donald O. Hebb that rats raised as pets in his home performed markedly better on problem solving tasks than those kept in the laboratory. In the subsequent years, numerous studies ensued demonstrating that EE was also capable of inducing neuroplasticity in normal (i.e., non-injured) rats. These behavioral and neural alterations provided the impetus for investigating EE as a potential therapy for traumatic brain injury (TBI), which over the past two decades has resulted in several reports. Hence, the aim of this review is to integrate the findings and present the current state of EE as a viable neurorehabilitation strategy for TBI. Using the specific key-term searches “traumatic brain injury” AND “environmental enrichment” or “enriched environment”, 30 and 30 experimental TBI articles were identified by Pubmed and Scopus, respectively. Of these, 27 articles were common to both search engines. An additional article was found on Pubmed using the key-terms “enriched environment” AND “fluid percussion.” A review of the bibliographies in the 34 articles did not yield additional citations. The overwhelming consensus of the 34 publications is that EE benefits behavioral and histological outcome after brain injury produced by various models. Furthermore, the enhancements are seen in male and female as well as adult and pediatric rats and mice. Taken together, these cumulative findings provide strong support for EE as a generalized and robust preclinical model of neurorehabilitation. However, to further enhance the model and to more accurately mimic the clinic, future studies should continue to evaluate EE during more rehabilitation-relevant conditions such as delayed and shorter time periods as well as in combination with other therapeutic approaches, as we have been doing for the past few years.


2.  Brain 2011;25(7-8):664-79. doi: 10.3109/02699052.2011.576306. Epub 2011 May 11.

Effectiveness of physical therapy for improving gait and balance in individuals with traumatic brain injury: a systematic review.

Bland DC1Zampieri CDamiano DL.

Author information



The purpose of this review was to investigate the efficacy or effectiveness of non-aerobic exercise interventions to improve balance and gait in functionally mild-to-moderate individuals with TBI (those who demonstrate the ability or capacity to ambulate) and to provide evidence-based guidelines for clinical practice.


The authors searched eight databases for papers including exercise interventions to improve gait and balance post-TBI. Twenty papers fully met inclusion criteria. The quality of studies was determined by the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale and strength by Sackett’s Levels of Evidence.


This study found limited evidence of the positive effects of balance, gait or the combination of both interventions in TBI rehabilitation. Most studies included small sample sizes with heterogeneous groups and the interventions were variable and lacked standardization. The outcome measures were variable and low in quality.


The state of evidence for gait and balance interventions in patients with mild-to-moderate TBI is surprisingly poor. Greater consideration and conformity in the choice of outcome measures and attention in the design and standardization treatment approaches are essential in future research to advance practice.



Province Hospitals Contact Details Acute Neuro Rehab Rehab Out PatientTherapy
Eastern Cape
Mmathata Bedford(public) 046 685 0043046 685 0361 Yes Yes
Port Elizabeth Aurora (private) 041 368 7285 Yes Yes
East London
Life St Dominic’s Hospital (private) 043 743 4303043 722
Free State
Bloemfontein Life Pasteur (private) 051 522 Yes
Alberton Natalspruit (public) 011 389 0500
Ga-Rankuwa Dr George Mukhari (public) 012 529 3782/3
Johannesburg Life New Kensington Clinin (private) 011 614 Yes
Life Riverfield Lodge (private) 011 460 Yes
Johannesburg Hospital 011 488 4911 Yes
Netcare Rehab Hospital (private) 011 489 1111 Yes Yes
Rehab Matters 011 803 6649086 642 8082
Rosebank CLinic 011 485 1997
South Rand (public) 011 435 0022 Yes Yes
Kempton Park Arwyp Medical Centre (private) 011 922 1367/8 Yes Yes
Pretoria Life Little Company of Mary (private) 012 424 3675 Yes
Life Eugene Marais Hospital (private) 012 334 Yes Yes
Muelmed (private) 012 341 1909 or 012 341 Yes Yes Yes
Pretoria Academic (public) 012 354 1000
Soweto Chris Hani Baragwanath (public) 011 933 8294
KwaZulu Natal
Durban Life Entabeni Hospital (private) 031 204 1300031 261 6435
Phoenix Spinal Rehab Centre (public) 031 500 7401 Yes Yes
Western Cape
Cape Town WC Rehab Centre (public & private) 021 370 2300 Yes
Groote Schuur Hospital 021 404 9111
UCT Private Academic Hospital 021 442 1826 Yes
2 Military Hospital Wynberg 021 799 6911 Yes
Conradie Care Centre Forest Drive Extension Pinelands 021 532 3940021 532 3944 Fax Contracted to seestate patients


Name Contact Details Web Site
Headway-Alexandra 011 440
Headway – Hyde Park 011 442
Multiple Sclerosis 086 456 772
Occupational Therapy Association of SA Tel: + 27 (0)12 362 5457
Fax: + 27 (0)86 651 5438
Odyssey Assist: Individualised Home Health Care Fax: +27 (0)86 537 0466
SA speech-language-hearing Association Tel: 0861 113 297 Fax: 041 379 5388
Stroke Foundation 011 456 6566
Heart and Stroke foundation Tel 021 447 6268 Fax 021 447 6270 Email
Stroke Aid Norwood 011 728 2292 Fax086 666
Stroke Aid South Rand 011 680
Stroke Aid Soweto 011 984
Epillepsy 011 816 2040
Muscular Dystrophy 011 789
Ninds Binswanger’s Disease
SA Depression & Anxiety Group 011 783 1474
Aphasia Support Group (University of Pretoria) 012 420 2357/012 460 8329
Aphasia Support Group(University of Witwatersrand) 011 717 4576
Motor Neuron Disease/ ALS association of SA Tel:   021 5316130      Fax:  021 5316131
Dystonia Association Phone: +27 (0)11 326 2112 Fax: +27 (0)11 326 3041

Neuro Interest Groups

Name Contact Details Web Site
PhysiotherapyNeuro Interest Group (NRG)
Adult Neuro Interest Group Headway Journal Club 011 442
DoctorsNeurology Association of South Africa (NASA) Tel: +27 21 404 3198

Other interesting Links

   Design by: The Creative Workshop | © SANRA 2012